Tuesday, February 22, 2005
History and Tourism in Tekirdag
HISTORY OF TEKIRDAG
Foreword: Tekirdag has been a centre hosting various civilizations since the day it appeared on the stage of history. This mysterious geography of which the part which has been explored so far dates back some seven thousand years has amply deserved the title of “Cradle of Civilizations” for the civilizations which it has accomodated. But it has not been able to reflect to the mankind how much it deserves such title due to the fact that no favourable conditions have come together.
People of this geography knew how to come to the forefront during the age in which they lived. They created quite fine works as compared to the conditions and facilities of the age in which they lived.
The finest wines have been produced in this land... Such that a great many legends tell that Dionysus, god of wine, took the vine saplings from this land where wine and wine-making were born and spread viniculture and wine-making all over the world.
The fame of the horses bred by the Thracians who lived in this geography has reached the present day as well.
With its increasing wealth, the region has become the core of a great many invasions and migrations as in every period of history. Such activity has caused the rise and fall of many civilizations. So, here you will watch the 7000 years of mysterious history of this special geography and the civilizations it has accommodated and even a brief chronology of mankind...
Introduction: Tekirdag first appeared on the stage of history as “Rhaedestus” in the 4th century and become familiar with several periods and civilizations since then. Archaeological research proves that it is so ancient a settlement.
When we look at the chronology of history, it is possible to study it in such periods as Prehistoric, Thracian, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Republican periods. But it is not possible to consider the history of Tekirdag apart from that of Thrace.
Tekirdag was given different names before it acquired its present name. It was known as “Rodosto” in the Byzantine period, “Rodoscuk” after it fell to the Ottomans in the 14th century. It attained a name close to its present name in the 18th century: “Tekfurdag”... It started to be called “Tekirdag” after the announcement of the Republic.
The very first settlement in Thrace corrensponds to the Paleolithic era, which was between 200000 and 10000 BC in Thrace. In the excavations carried out in the “Yarimburgaz Cave” near Istanbul and in the “Agacli” region on the Black Sea coast of Thrace, remains from the Paleolithic era have been found. In the Gungormez and Guneskaya caves within the limits of Saray township, sherds of pottery which are dated to 5000-3000 BC have been unearthed. It is thought that remains from the Paleolithic era shall be possibly found when excavations are carried out at the lower srata.
The period between 8000 and 5000 BC is called the Neolithic era. This era is the one which is deemed to be a revolution in the development of mankind and in which the men first settled. yılları arasındaki Çağ ise Neolitik çağ olarak adlandırılmaktadır. And remains from the Neolithic era have been found in the surface research carried out on the coastal strip of Tekirdag.
This is an indication of the fact that the first settled life started on the coastal strip in and around Tekirdag.
The Buruneren farm in Sarkoy may be the best example of a Neolithic settlement. Ceramics from Hacilar in Burdur have also been found in this settlement and in the Hocacesme mound in Enez. And this is an important evidence of the trade relations between Thrace and Anatolia.
The Chalcolithic era is a period between 5000-3000 BC when the settlements in the form of villages developed. The centre of such findings from this era is Toptepe mound near Marmara Ereglisi in Thrace.
As a matter of fact, the story of the Toptepe mound is quite interesting. In 1963, the director of the British Institute of Archaeology found the Toptepe mound by coincidence while passing by and published it in the British Archaeology Magazine, thus announcing it to the world of science.
But years later than this interesting discovery of the Toptepe mound, the area has been invaded by the construction of residences. In 1989, Prof. Dr Mehmet Ozdogan carried out excavations in a small area remaining from the recidences. But even with this study, only part of the cultural stratum and significant works of Thrace has bee unearthed. The most important work unearthed during this excavation is a figure of the Mother Goddess. Made from terracotta, this figure has been dated to 4300 BC.
Likewise, remains which are contemporary with the Toptepe strata have been unearthed at the lower strata of the excavations carried out in the Menekse junction located on the coast of the Gazioglu village by the Directorate of Tekirdag Museum and the University of Istanbul. In Menekse junction have been revealed huts built in the fence-building technique in elliptical form and fireplaces and furnaces in these huts.
Research carried out by the Directorate of Tekirdag Museum has revealed that two settlements covering the late Chalcolithic and early Bronz ages were used a the centres of stone axe making. Archaeological research carried out has revealed that the people of that age achieved their dealings by trading axes, wheat, metal objects and the like which they produce or manufacture. A great many objects from those periods are now on display in the Tekirdag Museum.
The period in which bronz appeared, mining developed and the first princedoms established is called the Early Bronz age. The Early Bronz age is the name given to the period between 3000 and 2000 BC. Significant developments occured in Tekirdad in the Early Bronz and Late Bronz ages.
The period between 1400 and 1000 is the one during which the Late Bronz and Early Iron ages were experienced and it has been determined that there was a great wave of migration. The periods following this event especially observed in the Ergene and Meric basins have not yet been clarified. For the historical data of this period could not yet been reached.
In this period, a community called Proto-Thracian lived in Thrace while the Hittites, which was an institutionalized state living in Anatolia. No definite information has yet been obtained about this community which was far behind the Hittites by comparison and in terms of social organization. It is not known whether or not the Thracians had been present in Thrace since the Prehistoric ages. But yet, in the light of the research carried out, it is strongly possible that they are a tribe coming from the north.
In the 9th century BC, the Thracians are mentioned in the Iliad, Homer’s epic poem. He uses such adjectives about them as horse-feeding, horse-breeding, etc. Homer says about Rhesus, king of Thrace, “I have not seen any beautiful, huge horses like his, running like winds, whiter than snow”. As we learn from what Homer wrote, these horses were presented as gifts to any envoys to Thrace.
Living between 490 and 435 BC, the historian Herodotus writes about the Thracians: “The most crowded ones next to the Indans are the Thracians. If they were commanded by a single man or acted in a single will, they would never be defeated and, in my opinion, would be the strongest and the most crowded of nations.”
In the work entitled “Anabasis” (Return of the Ten Thousand) written in early 400 BC by Xenophon, he relates that the people of Perinthus Herakleia (Marmara Ereglisi), which a Thracian town, bred horses for the army.
According to the evidence found during the historical research, the Thracians had great respect for the God of Wine Dionysus, who is assumed to have walked around the world to spread the vine and wine all over the world, Artemis of golden bow, Goddess of reproductivity, fertility and hunting, and Hermes, messenger of the gods.
The burial traditions of the Thracians were quite interesting as well. All of the mounds seen in Thrace, some of which are of monumental nature and some of which are small are all grave hills which are called tumuli. The historian Herodotus mentions the burial traditions of the Thracians as follows: “When a Thracian dies, his corpse is laid in the house for three days. In the meanwhile sacrifices are slaughtered and funerary banquests organized. The corpse is cremated. Or it is placed in the grave without cremating. People mourn and drink wine for the deceased. Weapon games and sports events are organized. A mound is piled up over the grave.”
The most significant conclusion of a great many research and works studied is that the Thracians was a tribe who well bred horses and placed much importance on their horses. They place such importance on them that they are known to have built tumuli as well as for their ownselves when they died. Some research has revealed the fact that they buried their horses together with their own corpses.
Findings supporting this fact were revealed in the excavations carried out in the Tek Hoyuk Tumulus in Hacili village of Hayrabolu in 1995. In the tumulus pile of 9.5 meters in height, a 3x5m pit with a depth of 70cm had been dug at a level near the middle and the deceased cremated and his ashes buried in the same place. There was a circular pit some 3m in front of this pit in which the horse of the Thracian had been cremated. In the pit where the horse had been cremated, there were a lot of bones of eaten animals and sherds of pitchers. The animals whose bones were found were calf, sheep, goat and chicken. Wine had been drunk from the pitchers and then the pitchers were broken. Then earth had been piled over the grave to build the tumulus. This tradition continued until AD 395, i.e. the end of the Roman period.
Information obtained reveals that the Thracians lived in tribes and could never fully unite. The two most important Thracian tribes living in Turkish Thrace are the Asts and the Odyrises.
The Asts lived at the foot of the Istranca Mountains. One of the most important towns is Byzye. The place where Byzye is located is today’s Vize township of the province of Kirklareli.
The Odyrises are the largest and most important tribe living in Thrace. After the relief of Thrace from the Persian occupation, the Odyrises could achieve to establish a Thracian kingdon in the area from the coastal strip of Tekirdag and the west of Ipsala border gate.
Between 360 and 341 BC, the Odyrian king Kersepleptes fought the attacks from the west. There were Macedonian attacks from the west in those days. The Macedonian king Philip II conquered the whole of Thrace to Tekirdag in 352 BC. He also took the town called Heraion Teichos located in the coast of Karaevli village from the Odyrises. Although he besieged Perinthus in the further west, he could not conquer it. Perinthus was conquered later by Alexandre the Great, son of Philip II.
A royal tomb was found in the excavations carried out in the Harekattepe Tumulus located in the coast of Karaevli village by the Directorate of Tekirdag Museum and concluded in 2001. A priest king was found in this tomb, who had been buried with silver coins and purple cloths of the period of Philip II and had a golden crown with oak brach motifs on his head and another golden crown with ivy branch motifs on his breast. From the chronological standpoint, the Odyris king of this region was Kerseplestes at the time of Philip II. Since the date of death of Kersepleptes was 341 BC during the reign of Philip II, this proves that the royal tomb found belongs to the Odyris king Kersepleptes.
The skull of King Kersepleptes was almost animated through fleshing technique by Prof. Dr Ilter Uzel and Prof. Dr Osman Bengi. His cloths were made of the same fabrics in their original form. He was put on those cloths and is now on display in the Tekirdag Museum together with other objects.
In the hall where the belongings of Kersepleptes are displayed in the museum, findings from another tumulus excavation had started to be displayed. Such findings which were found in the excavations in the Naip Tumulus and determined to belong to a Thracian called Teres in 1984 started to be displayed in the Tekirdag Museum in December 1992. While the findings obtained in two different excavations carried out in the Harekattepe tumulus and Naip tumulus are displayed opposite to each other in the Tekirdag Museum, the fact which was revealed by Prof. Dr Inci Delemen surprised everybody.
When Mrs Delemen, who had the excavation and findings of the Naip tumulus as an associate professorship thesis, evaluated the results of the survey in the Thracian tomb of Teres in the Naip tumulus from 1998 through 2002, she determined that the tomb belonged to Teres, son of Kersepleptes, king of Odyris. Thus the father and son who were separated by death centuries ago met in the Tekirdag Museum.
Thrace came under Persian control after the Scythian campaign of the Persian king Darieus in 514-513 BC. The Persian sovereignty lasted until 478-477 BC. The Persians were driven away by the Attic-Delos sea league established by Athens.
Thrace opened to trade upon the establishment of the Greek colonies in the 7th century BC. During this period, such towns as Selymbria, Byzanthe, Perinthus were founded on the Marmara coasts of Thrace by the Megaran and Samian colonists. But such ancient sources as Homer, Herodotus and Xenophon and archaeological finds show that there had been towns here before the foundation of the colonial towns and that the native people had continuously fought one another and the newcomers.
Philip II, king of Macedonia annexed Thrace to his own territories and made the kingdom of Odyris his dependent in 342 BC, and upon Alexandre’s death Thrace came under the control of Lysimachus, one of the diadochoi. Thrace’s coming under the Roman rule for a great many years began in AD 19 when the Roman emperor Tiberius sent a governor to Thrace. This beginning resulted in the foundation of a Roman province in Thrace in AD 46 by emperor Claudius. As from this date, Thrace remained under Roman control for many years.
Emperor Claudius founded two Roman colonies in the inner parts of Thrace, where retired Roman soldiers caused to settle in order to romanize Thrace. One of them is the town known by the name of Apri or Aprus in the place where Kermeyan village is located near Malkara at present.
The other one is Dealtum remaining in the Bulgarian territories. This is understood by the military inscriptions unearthed in Apri. Due to the policy followed by the Romans, the Thracians were entirely assimilated , and Thrace came under Roman control. Perinthus, now Marmara Ereglisi, was made the provincial center in this period.
In the reign of the Roman emperor Septimus Severus, Byzantium, now Istanbul, uprose against Rome. The Perinthians took sides with the Romans in the fierce war between the Byzantians and the Romans following this incident, and the Romans won the war. This incident ended with Septimius Severus’s reducing Byzantium to a village status. Thus it was annexed to Perinthus. And the Perinthians erected a statue of emperor Septimius Severus in the main square of the town in order to give their thanks and show their loyalty to the emperor. The headless statue displayed in the Tekirdag Museum is thought to be that statue.
An 7x3m inscription in relief dated to the Roman period, which evidences that a foot soldier promoted to cavalry due to his achievement was unearthed in an excavation carried out in Kamaradere district of Marmara Ereglisi by Dr Nezih Firatli.
When the Roman Empire was divided into two in AD 395, Thrace remained in the territories of the Eastern Roman, i.e. Byzantine Empire.
There were many attacks from the west during the Byzantine Empire period. The most important of those attacks were the Hun attacks between 378 and 559 and the Avar attacks between 587 and 626. The capture of Byzantium in 1096 and 1261 is another unforgettable event and this date coincides with the period of decline of the Byzantine Empire. The most important of the attacks from the east is the Arab attacks between 673 and 718.
During the attacks from the west, the Byzantines built many fortresses for protective and defensive purposes. The fortresses located within the limits of the province of Tekirdag are Cin Fortress in Yenice village of Sarkoy township, Fortress in Elmali village of Sarkoy, Yenidibek Fortress in Malkara, Fortress in Kermeyan village of Malkara, Fortress of Beyoglu village of Sarkoy, Kartalkaya Fortress of Ucmakdere in Sarkoy, Fortress of Naip village, Misinli Fortress and Corlu Fortress.
Ottoman forces’ crossing over Gallipoli to Thrace highly wore out the Byzantine Empire, and the Empire surrounded in both the west and the east experienced too troubled a period. And it was erased from the stage of history upon the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 by Mehmet II Conqueror.
Following the landing on Gallipoli of the forces commanded by Suleyman Pasha in 1354, the Turkish control started in Thrace. Upon the conquest of Hadrianopolis (Edirne), the region entirely came under the Turkish rule.
After Tekirdag passed to the Turkish hands, its location on the campaign route for conquests in Europe as well its proximity to Edirne and Istanbul further increased its importance.
It stems from this view that Yahya Kemal, a famous Turkish poet, mentions Tekirdag as the “HORIZON OF CONQUESTS” in his poem entitled “Thought of Road”.
The Ottoman sultan Murat I started to settle Turkmens and Yuruks in the territories he conquered. The Turks from Karasi (Balikesir), Tokat, Sivas, Kayseri, Kutahya and Ermenek were the very first owners of our province. Tekirdag developed as an Ottoman Turkish town. The greatest Yuruk princes used to reside in Tekirdag, Vize, Hayrabolu and Corlu. The princes fed cavalry and infantry soldiers in the farms granted to themselves on conditional basis.
In the reign of Mehmet II Conqueror, the very first law was passed on the Yuruks, and Yuruk guilds were established. Those Yuruks who were settled and bound by special statute were called Musellem. Musellem guilds were consisted of the Yuruks and initially was a class of cavalry warriors. Then they were gradually taken to the passive service. They started to perform the same duties as the Yuruk guilds. Despite of the strict provisions of the Yuruk law, the Yuruks started to be bound to soil. This lasted a century until 1691. In order to prevent the rout which started after the second Vienna siege, the Ottoman State preferred to take some measures. One of these measures was the reorganization of the Yuruks under the name of “Descendents of the Conquest”.
Evliya Celebi, a Turkish traveler of the 16th century, says of Tekirdad the “throne of warrior (topkeşen) Yuruk princes”. Since a number of Turkish tribes settled in the territories of the province of Tekirdag in the foundation period of the Ottoman Empire, there are a great many names among the village and farm names which belong to the Oguz, Avshar, Danishmend, Dulkadir, Saruhan, Karaman, Bozoklu, Aydin and Karasi tribes, and to the Syrian and Iranian Yuruks.
The province of Tekirdag was the passing and calling place of almost all the Ottoman sultans due to the fact that it was located between such cities as Edirne and Istanbul, which were both governmental centres in the Ottoman period.
Malkara and Tekirdag being pre-eminent, the province of Tekirdag was one of the marked places of exile during the Ottoman Empire. The courtyard of Ayas Pasha Mosque in Saray township was made a Cemetery of Girays. When the Crimean Khans descended from the lineage of Genghiz Khan were dismissed from their posts due to several reasons, they were made to settle in the villages and farms in the vicinity of Saray if they were not guilty of major offenses. This continued until the reign of Selim III. Some of them resided in Corlu, Hayrabolu and Malkara. Some of the Crimean Khans who lived and died in Saray township are Devlet Giray Khan II (d. 1725), Fetih Giray Khan II (d. 1746), Islam Giray Khan (d. 1742), Selim Giray Khan III (d. 1785), Devlet Giray Khan IV (d. 1780) and Shakhbaz Giray Khan (d. 1792).
There was a cemetery of pashas similar to this in Malkara as well. Those who are the most renowned among those exiled to Malkara were Hadim Suleyman Pasha, Koca Sinan Pasha, Sofu Mehmet Pasha, Boynu Yarali Mehmet Pasha, Melek Ahmet Pasha, Siyavush Pasha and Halil Pasha, a grand vizier of Murat IV. Some of them were relieved of exile over time, some of them were strangled by the executioners sent from the Palace and some of them died of their doom.
Among those who were exiled to Tekirdag are Janissary Agha Mehmet Sait Agha, Janissary Agha Salih Pasha, Grand Vizier Tevfik Ali Pasha, Husrev Pasha, who was the first Grand Vizier of Abdulmecit, Mustafa Pasha of Tekirdag, who was the Minister of Provisions, Hamami Mehmet Pasha, Esseyd Ali Pasha, who was a grand vizier during the reign of Mahmut II.
Since the Hungarian prince Rakoczi and his dependents were moved away from ıstanbul upon the pressure from Austria, they may be deemed to be exiles in a way.
Having fought the Austrian Empire for the freedom of Hungary, the Transylvanian king and Hungarian prince Rakoczi II first settled in Poland, then Britain and France when his army was defeated. He was invited to Ottoman Empire by sultan Ahmet II. Acceding to the invitation, Prince Rakoczi Ferench II first went to Istanbul together with his generals and dependents. Having moved to Tekirdag upon the pressure of the Austrian state two years later, Rakoczi was treated as a monarch. They stayed as guests in 23 houses rented by the Ottoman government. He had with him his assistant Mikes Kelemen, a Hungarian author. Having died on 8th April 1735, internal organs of Rakoczi were buried in the Greek cemetery in Tekirdag and his ashes in the church of Saint Lazarus in Istanbul. A panel coming in 1906 took the ashes with a ceremony to his birthplace Kassua.
Tekirdag and its vicinity was invaded in different periods by the Russian and Bulgarian armies. When the Russians won the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876, they occupied Edirne on 20th January 1878 and Tekirdag on 31st January 1878 and retreated from the region upon the conclusion of the Hagiastephanus Treaty on 3rd March 1878. Upon the defeat of the Ottoman army in Luleburgaz during the Balkan War, the Bulgarians proceeded to Catalca between 15th and 21st October 1912. And in 1913, all the territories of Tekirdag were occupied, except for some parts of Sarkoy. But the occupation of Sarkoy township did not last long.
After the coup d’état of the Unionists on 23rd January, the light cavalry corps commanded by Kushchu Bashi Eshref Bey successfully landed on Marmara Ereglisi and Tekirdag in the morning on 13th July 1913 with the participation of the volunteers and salvaged Tekirdag and its vicinity from the Bulgarian occupation.
Tekirdag played an important role during the World War I, especially in the Canakkale front. Lt. Colonel Mustafa Kemal, who was the military attaché i Sophia at the outbreak of the war, was assigned with the foundation of the 19th Division. Having arrived in Tekirdag in his rank of a lieutenant colonel on 2nd February 1915, Mustafa Kemal worked hard and gathered and made the 19th Division ready within 25 days. Then the division moved to Maydos on 25th February 1915. Commander of the Maydos region, Mustafa Kemal organized the troops under his command against the places where the enemy could land on. The British corps started to land their soldiers on Ariburnu and Seddulbahir on 25th April 1915. Mustafa Kemal defeated the British corps with his division here and laid the foundations of the Canakkale defense. He was promoted a colonel on 1st June 1915.
Tekirdag took its honourable place in the history as the place where the 19th Division, which created great heroism in the battles of Canakkale, was founded.
Tekirdag was used as a port, hospital and quay during the battles of Canakkale as well. Thousands of wonded soldiers were transported by vessels of small tonnage and treated in Tekirdag during the war. The women of Tekirdag worked as voluntary nurses in dressing the wounds. They used any things such as bed sheets, quilts, and whatsoever thay they brought from their houses as bandage. At present, there is a war memorial in the Muratli Street, which was erected for the memory of some ten thousand Canakkale martyrs who were buried in Tekirdag.
The Greek troops occupied Thrace in 1919. The occupation by the Allied States of the straits and the existence of enemy battleships in the Sea of Marmara interrupted the communication of Thrace with Anatolia and made its defense too difficult. On 20th July 1920, the Greeks landed near Sultankoy, Marmara Ereglisi and Tekirdag and marched toward Corlu and Tekirdag. Even though the 171st Regiment resisted the landing, our troops had to retreat as a result of the participation in the war of the Greeks and Armenians in the town. The soldiers scattered around. Tekirdag was occupied. The occupation of Tekirdag lasted until the Mudanya Armistice.
The first places liberated from the Greek occupation were Cerkezkoy, Saray and Marmara Ereglisi. Upon their liberation on 30th October 1922, Corlu was liberated from the Greek occupation on 1st November, Muratli on 2nd November, Tekirdag on 13th November, Malkara and Hayrabolu on 14th November and Sarkoy on 17th November.
The country was liberated and Tekirdag taken back. The Tekirdag Turkish Guild was inaugrated in emotional feelings of nationalism. Mustafa Kemal was communicated the deepest feelings of gratitude and thanks of the people of Tekirdag and a picture of his was asked for this occasion.
Mustafa Kemal sent the following letter along with his autographed picture:
To the Chairman of the Tekfurdag Turkish Guild,
I have received your letter informing me of the inaugration of your guild with pleasure. I would thank you for the words of affection and sincerity for me. As you wish, Sir, some pictures have been printed. I wish you success in your efforts towards the progress of the nation and country.
Ghazi Mustafa Kemal, President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Commander-in-Chief
Upon the announcement of the Republic, Mustafa Kemal started to make reforms one after another. Having started the Reform of Alphabet in a speech of his at Sarayburnu one day when he was in Istanbul, Mustafa Kemal wanted to check the attitude of the people by setting out in a journey of the country starting from Tekirdag and including Mudanya, Canakkale, Samsun, Amasya, Tokat, Sivas and Kayseri respectively in October 1929.
The reason why Tekirdag was the first stop is that the people of the region is exposed to developments and enlightened. Having chosen this place as the place of initial practice of the new alphabetic characters, Mustafa kemal’s aim was to move the reform out of Istanbul and see the practices on site.
Further, since he was the commander of division here, he well knew the characterisctics of the people and recognized them very closely. Mustafa Kemal gathered the provincial officials and a group of the people as well as the statesmen in his retinue in the hall of the Provincial General Assembly. By a blackboard brought in, he asked those around him “Do you know the new Turkish alphabet?” and then told them the fine qualities of the new alphabet.
Having called the officials to the board and had them practise the new letters, Mustafa Kemal corrected their mistakes as well. After the course which lasted two hours, he went to the Municipal building and spoke of the benefits and characteristics of the new alphabet here as well. Then he went to the Officers Club and dictated the commander of the brigade following words regarding the new Turkish alphabet: 'I was very pleased to visit my fellow army officers in Tekirdag today. Please be so kind as to tell this pleasure of mine to those who are not present here.I specially request and wish them to immediately teach the new Turkish letters to all the people in the vicinity.”
Having met a white-turbaned imam among the crowd while leaving the Officers Club, Mustafa Kemal called him by his side. He was the imam Mustafa Ozeren.
They went into a pharmacy on the way.
He asked the imam, “My Hodja, do you know the new alphabet?”
When he was replied, “I do not know, my Pasha. I have not yet been able to learn it”, he took out a piece of paper. He told the imam to write a verse from Qor’an. The imam wrote a verse with utmost care. Mustafa Kemal wrote the same in the new letters and gave back to the imam.
He said, “do learn the new alphabet immediately, and encourage everybody to learn it. And let me find you to be able to write the new letters in my next visit.”
Having gone first to Tekirdag in order to introduce such a reform as the reform of alphabet which caused our country to take importance distance on the way to the contemporary civilization, Mustafa Kemal reached his goal and observed the positive results of trusting in the people in his visit in which the people met and saw him off in an exuberant crowd. Mustafa Kemal was amply pleased with his visit and declared to the reporter of the Anatolian Agency as follows on his return to Istanbul:
“I could only visit Tekirdag, where I was first the Commander of Division, after an interval of 14 years. I am very pleased with and touched by this. But the point with which I am more pleased and rejoiced is that I can say that the fellow citizens of Tekirdag have immediately learnt how to read and write in the new Turkish alphabet. I myself examined all the officials. I had exercises with the people in the streets and shops. I saw that those who could not read and write in Arabic characters have become accustomed to reading and writing in Turkish characters. It is really a great pleasure for me to see that the great Turkish nation displays such a high conscience and perception and especially some hastiness in this issue of alphabet which it believes to be beneficial before there is a guide certified by the competent authorities and before the teachers of the nation have not yet guided the people.”
Mustafa Kemal called in the towns within the provincial limits several times after this trip to Tekirdag. One of such trips was on 4th June 1936. Ataturk came from Istanbul to Corlu together with Kazim Dirik, General Inspector of Thrace, and met the Commander of the Army Corps Salih (Omurtak) and the Governor of Tekirdag Hasim Iscan, and they all walked around in the building site of the new village of emigrants in Muratli. Atatürk returned to Istanbul the very same day by his private train. Ataturk arrived at Cerkezkoy at night on 16 th August 1937 during the maneouvers of Thrace by his private train and carried out inspections within the limist of the province of Tekirdag until 22nd August 1937.
TEKİRDAĞ AND TOURISM
Tekirdağ is on European area of our country, in coasts of Marmara Sea and Black Sea, has beautiful coasts and natural beaches and is pretty province. The costs are clean and open to public. Transport is easy because Istanbul city is very close and D-100 and E-84 highways are passing within our borders. This makes Tekirdağ gain to be a holiday and tourism center.
In Tekirdağ, some of the historical and interesting places are Archeology and Ethnography Museum, Rakocky Museum, Namık Kemal’s House, the mosques and fountains coming from Ottoman era. Sarkoy where grape harvest days are celebrated, Murefte and Hoskoy that own oil and grape gardens are also attractive. Uçmakdere is a natural wonder and among holiday sites. It is possible to find enough and beautiful sunlight as well as rest facilities in forest in Kumbag where there are tourist facilities. Marmara Ereğlisi town is an important town with its suitable beaches and coasts. Yeniçiftlik is also among our important towns. Especially Camlıkoy (Kastro) found in Saray Town is a tourist paradise.
Martime is not so used, whereas it it a coastal city. There are ferry and motorship schedules from Tekirdağ and Şarköy to Marmara Island in the days of summer..
There are many official and private resting centers along the coasts of Tekirdağ The overall construction of the coastal road called Tekirdağ-Şarköy in the short run wiil be too useful to the all intends and purposes for the tourism at which district Şarköy is extremely favorable..
The Pension management is too common in Kumbağ-Tekirdağ ,Şarköy Mürefte. Besides these advantages, the existence of the High School of Tekirdağ Anatolian Hotelkeeping and Tourism, of Marmara Ereğlisi, of Çorlu, of Şarköy that endow qualified staff is another advantage that our city possess in the tourism sector for the employment of qualified staff in terms of more intelligent presentation of tourism services..
Within this tourism concept, there are totally 25 facilities among which 12 accomodation ones, 1 for entertainment and 12 Travel Agencies having the certificate for the management as to the end of November1998 in our city.
Our city and the district of Şarköy have been declared as the tourism centers in accordance with the decree dated 16.01.1990 no. 90/70 of the Board of Ministers publicized in the Official Journal dated March 5, 1990 and no. 20452
TOURISM MASTER PLAN OF CITY TEKİRDAĞ
The Plan of Inventory and of Developping the Tourism of Tekirdağ has been constituted in 1995 as a result of a bidding realized on the part of the Tekirdağ Governorship at the aim of evaluating the sources,
a) The accomodation facilities certified with tourism investment in Tekirdağ.
As to the end of July/2002, there are 3 accomodation facilities, 1 cafeteria, 1 refreshments facility, that is, totally 5 facilities having the certificate. The types and the capacities are indicated as follows:
Facility : Number of rooms and beds : Refreshments:
Hotel of 3 273 557 730 persons
Cafeteria of 1 - - 85 persons
Restaurant of 175 persons
TOTAL CAPACITY: 5 273 557 990 persons
b) The accomodation facilities certified with the tourism management:
As to the end of July/2002, : The types and the capacities of the facilities having the tourism certificate are indicated as follows:
Facility : Number of rooms and beds : Refreshments:
Accomodation facilities of 11 544 1058 1130 persons
Restaurant of 2--- 334 persons
Facility for one-day-accomodation 1 - - 165 persons
Travel Agency 12 - - -
TOTAL 26 544 1058 1429 persons
c) Accomodation facilities having the certificate from the Municipality:
As to the end of July/2002, : The types and the capacities of the accomodation facilities in the center of the city and in the districts are indicated as follows:
Facility : Number of rooms and beds : Refreshments:
Hotels of 35 993 2011 persons
Motels of 15 367 1021 persons
Pension of 40 523 1591 persons
TOTAL 90 1883 4623
TRAVEL AGENCIES HAVING THE CERTIFICATE TOURISTIC MANAGEMENT
There are 12 travel agencies having the certificate of tourism management in the city..
The distances from the touristic cities and districts from Tekirdağ:
İstanbul 131 km.
Edirne 141 km.
Çanakkale 194 km.
Kırklareli 122 km.
Çorlu 38 km.
M.Ereğlisi 39 km.
Saray 77 km.
Şarköy 84 km.
a) Canpings and Beaches:
Ünal Kamping: on the road Tekirdağ-İstanbul, in the coast of Yeniçiftlik, with a capacity of 30 tents, 26 km away from the center of the city.
Bağtur Kamping: in Kumbağ , in Ova region. with a capacity of 40 tents places , parking place of 80 cars, eating and drinking.
Gülay Kamping: on the road Tekirdağ-İstanbul, in the coast of Yeniçiftlik, with a capacity of 40 tents, 25 km away from the center of the city.
Çamlık Kamping : on the road of Istanbul ; under Karaevli with a capacity of 20 tents
Huzur Aile(Family) Kampı : In Yeniçiftlik region, in Yıldızkent Aytepe , with a capacity of 20 tents
Diana Kamping : In Yeniçiftlik region, in Yıldızkent Aytepe , with a capacity of 20 tents
Kral Kamping : : In Yeniçiftlik region, in Yıldızkent Aytepe
Tredaş Kamping : In Yeniçiftlik region, in Yıldızkent Aytepe , with a capacity of 62 tents
Kastro Kamping (Çamlıkoy): is connected with the Black Sea , with 2,5 km coast, with a capacity of 120 tents
Dereağzı Plajı: On the Tekirdağ-İstanbul road, şehir merkezine 6 km away from the center of the city
Değirmenaltı Plajı(Beach): On the Tekirdağ-İstanbul road, 6 km away from the center of the city
Çorlu Belediye Plajı: ): On the Tekirdağ-İstanbul road, 20 km away from the center of the district
Şarköy Belediye Plajı(Şarköy Municipal Beach): in district Şarköy , there are many pensions and motel near the beach.
b) Recreation Spots:
The main recreation spots of Tekirdağ are : Kumbağ, 15 km away from the center of the city; Barbaros 10 km away from the center of the city; Naip; Dereağzı and Değirmenlatı on the road of Istanbul
Forest of Atatürk : On the road of Tekirdağ-İstanbul and 6 km away from the center of the city
In-forest Resting facilities of Kumbağ:
In the coast of Tekirdağ-Şarköy and İl merkezine 15 km away from the center of the city
Forest of Çorlu :
On the road of İstanbul-Edirne (D-100) and 8 km away from Çorlu. . uzaklıktadır.
Recreation Spot of Laladere :
In Güngörmez, Saray. 13 km away from the district of Saray, covered with forest..
In-forest Resting facilities of Çamlıkoy
In the coast of Black Sea , 32 km. away from the district of Saray uzaklıktadır.
THE ACTUAL ANTIQUE SETTLING REGIONS IN TEKİRDAĞ
It was built by the colonists from Samos. The exact date of the foundin could not estimated.
As to the antique sources, it is quoted as Bisanthe in Herodot in connection with the events during 430 B.C. And, then, in B.C. 400 it was included by the Odus Kingdom
It was built by the colonists from Samos in B.C.600. The historian Plinius wrote that , Perinthos had a connection with a width of 200ft to the main land.
KARAEVLİ VILLAGE (MOCASURA):
It is in Karaevli , below Çitlembik river.
The historian Herodot stated it is near Perinthos
Today, Ganos is in Gaziköy
This city’s palce could not be found..
It is in Şarköy-Tepeköy’de, devoted to Apollon-Toronteos
It was built by the Roman Emperor Cladius in A.D. 46
It was found out that there is an archaic thracian city in İnecik’te
It was built by the Ionians in B.C..VI. century..
It is located in Çorlu and on the E-5 road
It is an old settling center between Ahmedikli and Hacıköy.
It is 2 km.away from saray
Tarihi Hora Feneri(Beacon):
It dates 112 years, made up of .96 cristals, has degree of spinning of 360°.
Tekirdağ is one of the most important regions in terms of the history and archeology..
Archeological and Etnographical Museum:
It was built on May 8, 1967 and then, in 1992, it was moved to its present building where Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Republic works are exhibited.
It is a Turkish house dating from the 17. century built by a Hungarian Prince II. Ferenç Rakoczi in 1720, he lived there tiil his death in 1735.
Namık Kemal House:
Namık Kemal House was built as three floors in the Ottoman style of 19. century was put in service on December 21, 1993
FESTİVALS VE ENTERTAINMENTS:
Tekirdağ Cherry Festival:
It is traditional, cultural and entertainment festival. It was firstly celebrated in 1962. The Mayor of Tekirdağ is the President of the Entertainment Board. It is celebrated by parades, exhibitions, shows, nocturnal firing, nocturnal concerts, beauty contests, picknicks usually during the fiest week of June..
During the week, there is a great activity of local tourism. Thousands of inhabitants of Tekirdağ participate this festival.
Şarköy Vintage Entertainments:
It is celebrated under the organization of the District Governorship of Şarköy, Municipality, Directorate of the Vine Factories, Factory Owners, Hotel and Motel Managers during the first week of June.
Festival of Culture and Art of Çorlu:
It is celebrated during the second week of Augusts by the Municipality..
Muratlı Hıdırellez (=the beginning of summer) Entertainment:
Muratlı Hıdırellez Entertainment is celebrated on May ,6th
Malkara Oiled Wrestling:
It is traditionally celebrated on September 20th since 1991..
FESTİVALS ENTERTAINMENTS :
Name : Place : Date :
Tekirdağ Cherry Festivals During the first or second week of June
Hıdırellez Entertainment in Tekirdağ, on May 6th
Muratlı Hıdırellez Entertainment in Muratlı, during the first week of May
Thracian Agricultural Fair: in Çorlu The first week of September
Çorlu Cultural and Art Festivali in Çorlu, third week of June.
Uçurtma Şenliği(=Kite Entertainment): in Çerkezköy The first week of June.
Meeting of Environmental Day: in Çerkezköy, The first week of June.
Summer Entertainment: in Çerkezköy The first week of June
Oiled Wrestling: in Çerkezköy The first week of June
Book fair: in Çerkezköy, twice a year: (During the whole week of May 19th and October 29th)
Summer Sport School: in Çerkeköy in July and August.
Spring Entertainment: in Hayrabolu on April 29th (village of Çıkrıkçı)
Hıdırellez Entertainment: in Hayrabolu in May.
Tourism Office is at service being in the Atatürk Bulvarı in District, all the days including holidays.
COMMOMERATION AND CELEBRATION DAYS IN TEKİRDAĞ:
Celebration of New Alphabet: on : August 23rd
Çerkezköy Independence Celebration: October 29th
Çorlu “ “ : on November 1st
Saray “ “ : on November 1st
Muratlı “ “ : on November 2nd
TEKİRDAĞ “ “on November 13th
Malkara “ “ : on November 14th
Hayrabolu “ “ : on November 17th
Şarköy “ “ : : on November 17th
Mürefte “ “ : : on November 17th
Birthday Anniversary of namık Kemal: on December 21st
Hıdırellez Celebration: om May 6th